Journal of Woundcare Handbook

The professional's guide to wound product selection

Foams

Reston Self-Adhering Foam

Reston Self-Adhering Foam

Self-adhering open-cell foam designed to protect skin from splints, casts and prostheses. Lightweight and conformable. Can be cut, layered and shaped. Not intended as a pressure-reducing device.

Tegaderm Foam

Tegaderm Foam

Highly absorbent polyurethane foam dressing with semipermeable film backing layer. 3M logos indicate upper surface of dressing. Available in a variety of sizes and styles. Suitable for use under compression.

Tegaderm Foam Adhesive

Tegaderm Foam Adhesive

Highly absorbent polyurethane foam dressing with semipermeable film backing layer and adhesive border. Comprises four layers for high fluid absorption. Adapts to changing fluid levels in the wound to create a moist environment that promotes healing.

ActivHeal PHMB Foam Adhesive and Non-adhesive

ActivHeal PHMB Foam Adhesive and Non-adhesive

A sterile antimicrobial wound dressing consisting of an absorbent hydrophilic polyurethane foam pad laminated with a pink, low-friction, waterproof polyurethane film; available with and without adhesive. The wound contact layer side of the dressing has a clear perforated film with a that stops the wound bed from adhering to the dressing; the non-adhesive version also has a pressure-sensitive acrylic adhesive. The perforations also allow the uptake of exudate. The dressing contains polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB, polyhexanide).

ActivHeal Foam Adhesive

ActivHeal Foam Adhesive

A two-layer dressing consisting of a polyurethane bacterial barrier membrane with a centrally located hydrophilic pad and an acrylic adhesive border.

ActivHeal Foam Contact

ActivHeal Foam Contact

A three-layer dressing comprising a polyurethane bacterial barrier film, a perforated adhesive wound contact layer, and a centrally located hydrophilic polyurethane foam pad.

ActivHeal Foam Non-Adhesive

ActivHeal Foam Non-Adhesive

A three-layer construction with a low-friction backing, a soft highly absorbent foam and a perforated wound contact layer.

ActivHeal Silicone Foam Border

ActivHeal Silicone Foam Border

A sterile absorbent dressing consisting of a hydrophilic polyurethane foam pad, without and without a border. The outer layer comprises a pink, low-friction, waterproof, polyurethane film. The perforated, silicone, adhesive wound contact layer enables exudate uptake and prevents the dressing from sticking to the wound.

ActivHeal Tracheostomy Foam

ActivHeal Tracheostomy Foam

A soft, conformable, absorbent two-layer dressing consisting of a polyurethane foam pad and a polyurethane membrane with an acrylic adhesive border. The foam pad absorbs wound exudate vertically into the dressing, where it is retained. The waterproof membrane allows transpiration of the exudate to aid the dressing's fluid handling capacity.

Advazorb Heel

Advazorb Heel

A non-adherent polyurethane foam dressing with a breathable film backing designed to fit around the heel.

PolyMem Silver

PolyMem Silver

Polyurethane foam dressing with vapour-permeable film backing. Nanocrystalline silver is embedded in the foam structure, which also contains a tissue- friendly wound cleanser and glycerin to moisturise and prevent adherence to the wound. Helps promote healing and pain relief by maintaining a moist environment, reducing inflammation and reducing trauma at dressing changes.

PolyMem Silver WIC

PolyMem Silver WIC

Format of PolyMem Silver designed for cavity wounds. Can be used in both open and shallow cavities. Does not have film backing. Gently expands to fill the wound cavity, with all sides of the dressing absorbing excess fluid. The glycerol and non-toxic cleanser contained in the dressing keeps the wound bed clean and moist, prevents adherence and helps loosen slough and dried fluid crusts.

PolyMem

PolyMem

Non-adhesive thin polyurethane foam dressing with vapour-permeable film backing. Dressing structure contains a tissue-friendly wound cleansing agent and glycerol.

PolyMem (Self Adhesive)

PolyMem (Self Adhesive)

Thin polyurethane foam dressing with a vapour-permeable film backing and adhesive border. Dressing structure contains a tissue-friendly wound cleansing agent and glycerol.

PolyMem Finger and Toe

PolyMem Finger and Toe

A non-adhesive, anti-inflammatory, foam dressing with a water-resistant film backing designed for wounds on the fingers or toes. Contains a non-toxic wound cleansing agent (glycerine) to moisturise and prevent adherence to the wound.

PolyMem Max

PolyMem Max

Non-adhesive polyurethane foam dressing with vapour-permeable film backing. Sixty per cent thicker than PolyMem for more absorbency and longer wear time. Dressing structure contains a tissue-friendly wound cleansing agent and glycerol.

PolyMem Tube

PolyMem Tube

Thin polyurethane foam dressing with a vapour-permeable film backing pre-cut to fit around tube sites. Dressing structure contains a tissue-friendly wound cleansing agent and glycerol.

PolyMem WIC

PolyMem WIC

Designed for cavity wounds; can be used in both open and shallow cavities. Gently expands to fill the cavity, absorbing excess fluid from all sides of the dressing. The glycerol and non-toxic cleanser contained in the dressing keep the wound bed clean, moist and prevents adherence. Does not have a film backing.

Askina Foam

Askina Foam

Two layered, non-adherent foam dressing consisting of a soft hydrophilic polyurethane foam layer and a transparent polyurethane film backing.

Askina Foam Cavity

Askina Foam Cavity

Ribbon that consists solely of soft hydrophilic polyurethane foam to allow absorption from both sides.

Askina Heel

Askina Heel

Anatomically shaped heel with self-adhesive foam strap for the management of heel wounds. Consisting of a soft hydrophilic polyurethane foam layer and a transparent polyurethane film backing.

Biatain Ag (adhesive)

Biatain Ag (adhesive)

Soft, conformable polyurethane foam dressing with vapour-permeable film backing and an adhesive border. The dressing has 3DFit technology, which means the foam conforms to the wound bed to fill the gap and reduce pooling of exudate. Impregnated with silver.

Biatain Ag (non-adhesive)

Biatain Ag (non-adhesive)

A soft, conformable polyurethane foam dressing with vapour-permeable film backing. Impregnated with silver. The dressing has 3DFit technology, which means the foam conforms to the wound bed to fill the gap and reduce pooling of exudate. Can be used under compression.

Biatain Silicone Ag

Biatain Silicone Ag

A soft, confirmable, absorbent polyurethane foam pad with a vapour-permeable film backing and a gentle silicone adhesive border impregnated with silver. The dressing has 3DFit technology, which means the foam conforms to the wound bed to fill the gap and reduce pooling of exudate. 

Biatain Silicone Lite

Biatain Silicone Lite

A soft, conformable, thin, absorbent polyurethane foam pad with a vapour-permeable film backing and a gentle silicone adhesive border.The dressing has 3DFit technology, which means the foam conforms to the wound bed to fill the gap and reduce pooling of exudate. 

Biatain Adhesive

Biatain Adhesive

Soft, conformable, polyurethane foam dressing with vapour-permeable film backing and an adhesive border. The dressing has 3DFit technology, which means the foam conforms to the wound bed to fill the gap and reduce pooling of exudate. Can be used under compression bandaging.

Biatain Non-adhesive

Biatain Non-adhesive

Soft, conformable, non-adhesive polyurethane foam dressing with vapour-permeable film backing. Bevilled edges. The dressing has 3DFit technology, which means the foam conforms to the wound bed to fill the gap and reduce pooling of exudate. Can be used under compression bandaging.

Biatain Silicone

Biatain Silicone

A soft, comformable, absorbent polyurethane foam pad with a vapour-permeable film backing and a gentle silicone adhesive border. The dressing contains 3DFit technology which means the foam conforms to the wound bed to fill the gap and reduce pooling of exudate. 

Biatain Soft-Hold

Biatain Soft-Hold

A soft, conformable polyurethane foam dressing with a vapour-permeable film backing. The dressing has 3DFit technology, which means the foam conforms to the wound bed to fill the gap and reduce pooling of exudate. It has a partially-adherent layer to aid application for wounds that are difficult to dress. 

Biatain-Ibu Non-adhesive

Biatain-Ibu Non-adhesive

A soft polyurethane foam dressing with vapour-permeable film backing. Impregnated with ibuprofen. The dressing has 3DFit technology, which means the foam conforms to the wound bed to fill the gap and reduce pooling of exudate. Bevelled edges.

Biatain-Ibu Soft-Hold

Biatain-Ibu Soft-Hold

Soft, conformable, polyurethane foam dressing with vapour-permeable film backing and a skin-friendly adherent contact layer. Impregnated with ibuprofen. The dressing has 3DFit technology, which means the foam conforms to the wound bed to fill the gap and reduce pooling of exudate. Can be used under compression bandaging.

Aquacel Ag Foam

Aquacel Ag Foam

Adhesive and non-adhesive sterile Hydrofiber foam dressings consisting of a waterproof outer polyurethane layer and a multilayered absorbent pad. The adhesive version has a silicone adhesive border. The multilayer absorbent pad contains a layer of polyurethane foam and a non-woven layer of Hydrofiber (sodium carboxymethylcellulose) impregnated with 1.2% iconic silver.

Aquacel Foam

Aquacel Foam

Adhesive and non-adhesive sterile Hydrofiber foam dressings consisting of a waterproof outer polyurethane film and a multi-layered absorbent pad. The adhesive version has a silicone adhesive border. The multi-layer absorbent pad contains a layer of polyurethane foam and a non-woven layer of Hydrofiber (sodium carboxymethylcellulose).

Foam Lite ConvaTec

Foam Lite ConvaTec

A thin, conformable, laminated polyurethane layered foam dressing. Consists of a waterproof outer polyurethane film, an absorbent foam pad and a perforated gentle silicone adhesive.

Cutimed Siltec Sorbact

Cutimed Siltec Sorbact

Hydrophobic, microbial-binding foam dressing designed to manage exudate and bind bacteria under moist wound conditions. Dressings have a Sorbact Technology-coated wound contact layer, superabsorbers above the foam core, silicone adhesive border and a backing film with a high moisture vapour transmission rate.

Cutimed Siltec

Cutimed Siltec

Redesigned non-bordered superabsorbent foam dressing. Comprises a feather-tack silicone wound contact and a highly breathable top film. Can be used under compression. Secondary fixation required.

Cutimed Siltec B

Cutimed Siltec B

Redesigned superabsorbent foam dressing with a polyurethane film backing and a gently-adherent silicone border. Can be used under compression. Can be cut to size; no additional fixation required.

Cutimed Siltec Heel

Cutimed Siltec Heel

Redesigned anatomically-shaped superabsorbent foam dressing that moulds to the heel.  The dressing includes a silicone wound contact layer and a polyurethane film backing. Area covered extends from the heel to the Achilles tendon. Can be secured with a retention bandage. 

Cutimed Siltec L

Cutimed Siltec L

Redesigned non-bordered superabsorbent foam dressing. The dressing has a silicone contact layer and a film backing. Can be used under compression. Secondary fixation required. The thin profile of this dressing makes it more suitable for lower levels of exudate.

Cutimed Siltec PLUS

Cutimed Siltec PLUS

Redesigned non-bordered superabsorbent foam dressing with a silicone contact layer and a highly breathable top film. Its soft tack provides a slightly stronger hold than Cutimed Siltec. Can be used under compression. Secondary fixation required.

Cutimed Siltec Sacrum

Cutimed Siltec Sacrum

Redesigned anatomically-shaped superabsorbent foam dressing that provides a comfortable fit, even around the sacral cleft. The dressing has a silicone border and a polyurethane film backing.

Kendall AMD Antimicrobial Foam

Kendall AMD Antimicrobial Foam

Double-sided, highly absorbent, non-adherent, semi-occlusive, polyurethane foam impregnated with broad-spectrum antimicrobial (PHMB, 0.5%). Antimicrobial barrier is effective for up to 7 days.

Kendall AMD Antimicrobial Foam Disc

Kendall AMD Antimicrobial Foam Disc

Absorbent, non-adherent, semi-occlusive, polyurethane foam disc impregnated with broad-spectrum antimicrobial (PHMB, 0.5%). Double-sided with centre hole and radial slit. Antimicrobial barrier is effective for up to 7 days.

Kendall AMD Antimicrobial Gentle Border Foam

Kendall AMD Antimicrobial Gentle Border Foam

Highly absorbent, non-adherent, semi-occlusive, polyurethane foam impregnated with broad-spectrum antimicrobial (PHMB, 0.5%). Antimicrobial barrier is effective for up to 7 days. The gentle adhesion dressing helps to reduce pain on removal.

Kendall AMD Antimicrobial Plus Foam

Kendall AMD Antimicrobial Plus Foam

Highly absorbent, non-adherent, semi-occlusive, polyurethane foam impregnated with broad-spectrum antimicrobial (PHMB, 0.5%), with backsheet. Antimicrobial barrier is effective for up to 7 days.

Kendall AMD Foam Island

Kendall AMD Foam Island

Absorbent, adhesive, polyurethane foam dressing impregnated with broad-spectrum antimicrobial (PHMB, 0.5%). Antimicrobial barrier is effective for up to 7 days.

Kendall Foam

Kendall Foam

Highly absorbent, non-adherent, semi-occlusive, polyurethane foam dressing with film backing.

Kendall Foam Island

Kendall Foam Island

Highly absorbent, semi-occlusive, polyurethane foam dressing with film backing and an adhesive border.

Kliniderm Foam Silicone

Kliniderm Foam Silicone

A soft, conformable absorbent polyurethane foam dressing with an adhesive silicone wound contact layer and a moisture permeable film backing.

Kliniderm Foam Silicone Border

Kliniderm Foam Silicone Border

A soft, conformable absorbent polyurethane foam dressing with an adhesive silicone wound contact layer with waterproof film outer layer and adhesive border.

Kliniderm Foam Silicone Lite

Kliniderm Foam Silicone Lite

A soft, light, conformable, absorbent polyurethane foam dressing with an adhesive silicone wound contact layer and a moisture permeable film backing.

Kliniderm Foam Silicone Lite Border

Kliniderm Foam Silicone Lite Border

A soft, light, conformable absorbent polyurethane foam dressing with an adhesive silicone wound contact layer with waterproof film outer layer and adhesive border.

PermaFoam

PermaFoam

Non-adhesive, hydroactive, highly absorbent foam. Suitable for use under compression.

PermaFoam Comfort

PermaFoam Comfort

Polyurethane foam with adhesive border. Suitable for use under compression.

Advazorb Fixation

Advazorb Fixation

A post-decannulation tracheostomy dressing with a central location button that prevents the unwanted escape of air when pressure is applied while talking, coughing and sneezing. Comprises a latex-free, hydrophilic foam dressing with perforated soft-silicone wound contact layer and surrounding adhesive.

KerraFoam Gentle Border

KerraFoam Gentle Border

Foam dressing with a gentle silicone wound contact layer and lock-away core. The outer polyurethane film layer is water resistant and provides a bacterial barrier.

KerraFoam Simple

KerraFoam Simple

An absorbent sterile silicone foam dressing. Designed to minimise pain and trauma to the skin during dressing changes. 

KerraFoam Simple Border

KerraFoam Simple Border

An absorbent, sterile, silicone foam dressing. Secured with a soft silicone adhesive to minimise pain and trauma to the skin during dressing changes.  

Kerraheel

Kerraheel

Sterile hydrocellular heel dressing with a vapour-permeable, waterproof and bacteria-resistant polyurethane film.

Tielle

Tielle

Hydropolymer foam island dressing with fluid-locking technology to reduce the risk of leakage. Has a vapour-permeable film backing and adhesive border. Can be used under compression.

Tielle Lite

Tielle Lite

Thin hydropolymer foam dressing with non-adherent wound contact layer.

Tielle Non Adhesive

Tielle Non Adhesive

Absorbent, non-adhesive, hydropolymer foam island dressing with fluid-locking technology to reduce the risk of leakage. Has a highly breathable polyurethane film backing. Can be used under compression.

Tielle Packing

Tielle Packing

Absorbent hydropolymer foam sheet for use in cavity and deep wounds.

Tielle Plus

Tielle Plus

Hydropolymer foam island dressing with fluid-locking technology to reduce the risk of leakage. Has a vapour-permeable film backing and adhesive border. Can be used under compression.

Tielle Silicone Border

Tielle Silicone Border

Hydropolymer foam island dressing with fluid-locking technology to reduce the risk of leakage and soft silicone adhesive to allow gentle removal. Has a breathable polyurethane film that wicks away moisture and prevents water and bacterial ingress. Can be used under compression.

Optifoam Liquitrap Foam Dressing

Optifoam Liquitrap Foam Dressing

Superabsorbent foam dressing with a silicone coating. The Liquitrap core draws in large amounts of exudate, converts it into a gel and locks it away.

Lyofoam Max T

Lyofoam Max T

A highly absorbent dressing for use around tracheostomy tubes. It consists of polyurethane foam and a highly permeable waterproof backing film to allow effective vapour transfer.

Mepilex Ag

Mepilex Ag

Antimicrobial foam dressing consisting of a soft silicone wound contact layer, absorbent foam containing a silver compound and activated carbon, and a film backing.

Mepilex Border Ag

Mepilex Border Ag

Antimicrobial bordered foam dressing consisting of a soft silicone wound contact layer, an absorbent foam pad containing silver compound and activated carbon, a layer with super absorbent fibres and a film backing.

Mepilex Border Sacrum Ag

Mepilex Border Sacrum Ag

Antimicrobial bordered foam dressing shaped to conform to the sacrum. Consists of a soft silicone wound contact layer, an absorbent foam pad containing a silver compound and activated carbon, a layer with superabsorbent fibres and a film backing.

Mepilex Heel Ag

Mepilex Heel Ag

Antimicrobial foam dressing shaped to conform to the heel. Consists of a soft silicone wound contact layer, an absorbent foam containing a silver compound and activated carbon, and a film backing.

Lyofoam Max

Lyofoam Max

A highly absorbent foam dressing that consists of polyurethane foam and a waterproof backing film with high permeability to allow effective vapour transfer.

Mepilex

Mepilex

A highly conformable foam dressing consisting of a flexible absorbent polyurethane foam, a soft silicone wound contact layer and a film backing.

Mepilex Border

Mepilex Border

Bordered foam dressing consisting of a soft silicone wound contact layer, a flexible absorbent pad in three layers (a foam, a non-woven spreading layer and a layer with superabsorbent fibres) and a film backing.

Mepilex Border Comfort

Mepilex Border Comfort

Bordered foam dressing with proprietary Flex Technology for superior comfort and conformability. Consists of a soft silicone wound contact layer, a flexible, absorbent pad with three layers (a foam, a non-woven spreading layer and a layer with superabsorbent fibres) and a film backing.

Mepilex Border Flex

Mepilex Border Flex

Bordered foam dressing with flex cuts for hard-to-dress areas. Consists of a soft silicone wound contact layer, a flexible, absorbent pad with three layers (a foam, a non-woven spreading layer and a layer with superabsorbent fibres) and a film backing.

Mepilex Border Heel

Mepilex Border Heel

Bordered foam dressing shaped to conform to the heel. Consists of a soft silicone wound contact layer, a flexible, absorbent pad with three layers (a foam, a non-woven spreading layer and a layer with superabsorbent fibres) and a film backing.

Mepilex Border Lite

Mepilex Border Lite

Light bordered foam dressing consisting of a soft silicone wound contact layer, a flexible, absorbent pad with two layers (a foam and a non-woven spreading layer) and a film backing.

Mepilex Border Sacrum

Mepilex Border Sacrum

Bordered foam dressing shaped to conform to the sacrum. Consists of a soft silicone wound contact layer, an absorbent foam pad containing a silver compound and activated carbon, a layer with superabsorbent fibres and a film backing.

Mepilex Heel

Mepilex Heel

A highly conformable foam dressing shaped to fit the heel. Consists of a flexible absorbent polyurethane foam, soft silicone wound contact layer and a film backing.

Mepilex Lite

Mepilex Lite

Light foam dressing consisting of a soft silicone wound contact layer, a flexible absorbent pad and a film backing.

Mepilex Surgical

Mepilex Surgical

Bordered foam dressing for postoperative use consisting of a soft silicone wound contact layer, a flexible absorbent pad capable of absorbing blood or exudate, and a transparent film backing.

Mepilex XT

Mepilex XT

A highly conformable foam dressing that absorbs both low and high viscosity exudate. Consists of a flexible absorbent polyurethane foam, soft silicone wound contact layer and a film backing.

Allevyn Ag Adhesive

Allevyn Ag Adhesive

An antimicrobial absorbent three-layer dressing consisting of a silver sulfadiazine (SSD)-impregnated absorbent hydrocellular pad sandwiched between a perforated adhesive wound contact layer and a waterproof outer film. 

Allevyn Ag Gentle

Allevyn Ag Gentle

This dressing has an advanced triple-layered construction: an absorbent silver sulfadiazine (SSD)-impregnated hydrocellular pad is sandwiched between a perforated soft gel adhesive wound contact layer and a highly permeable waterproof outer film. 

Allevyn Ag Gentle Border

Allevyn Ag Gentle Border

This dressing has an advanced triple-layered construction: an absorbent silver sulfadiazine (SSD)-impregnated hydrocellular pad is sandwiched between a perforated silicone gel adhesive wound contact layer and a waterproof outer film. 

Allevyn Ag Heel

Allevyn Ag Heel

An absorbent antimicrobial three-layer dressing consisting of a silver sulfadiazine (SSD)-mpregnated absorbent hydrocellular pad sandwiched between a perforated non-adherent wound contact layer and a waterproof outer film. Shaped for use on the heel. 

Allevyn Ag Non-Adhesive

Allevyn Ag Non-Adhesive

An absorbent antimicrobial three-layer dressing consisting of a silver sulfadiazine (SSD)-impregnated absorbent hydrocellular pad sandwiched between a perforated non-adherent wound contact layer and a waterproof outer film. 

Allevyn Adhesive

Allevyn Adhesive

Comprises a centrally located absorbent hydrocellular pad sandwiched between a perforated adhesive wound contact layer and a waterproof outer film. 

Allevyn Gentle

Allevyn Gentle

This dressing has an advanced triple-layer construction comprising an absorbent, hydrocellular pad sandwiched between a perforated soft gel adhesive wound contact layer and a highly permeable waterproof outer film. 

Allevyn Gentle Border

Allevyn Gentle Border

A silicone gel adhesive hydrocellular foam dressing comprising an absorbent foam pad and a breathable outer film. The dressing should not be immersed in water. 

Allevyn Gentle Border Lite

Allevyn Gentle Border Lite

This dressing has an advanced triple-layer construction that combines an absorbent hydrocellular pad sandwiched between a perforated silicone gel adhesive wound contact layer and a highly permeable waterproof outer film. 

Allevyn Gentle Border Lite Multisite

Allevyn Gentle Border Lite Multisite

A dressing with an advanced triple-layer construction that combines an absorbent hydrocellular pad sandwiched between a perforated silicone gel adhesive wound contact layer and a highly permeable waterproof outer film. 

Allevyn Life

Allevyn Life

An advanced layered construction that combines a composite hydrocellular foam pad sandwiched between a perforated silicone gel adhesive wound contact layer and a highly permeable waterproof outer film. A central mesh screen on the pad helps shield the visibility of exudate. 

Allevyn Life Non-Bordered

Allevyn Life Non-Bordered

Five-layered conformable shape with low-tack silicone. The hyper-absorbent lock-away layer helps minimise leakage. Absorbs fluid vertically under pressure across a range of viscosities. 

UrgoTul Absorb Border

UrgoTul Absorb Border

An absorbent foam with silicone border featuring the TLC Healing Matrix to provide a nurturing environment for healing and harm-free care.  

UrgoCell Silver

UrgoCell Silver

A non-adherent, antibacterial foam dressing with a TLC Healing Matrix wound contact layer that promotes healing and allows pain-free dressing changes.

UrgoStart

UrgoStart

Soft-absorbent foam dressing containing a protease inhibitor (TLC-NOSF Healing Matrix). The TLC-NOSF Healing Matrix inhibits excess matrix metalloproteinases and promotes angiogenesis. NICE 2019 medical technology guidance (MTG42) states that evidence supports the case for adopting UrgoStart dressings to treat diabetic foot ulcers and venous leg ulcers.

 

UrgoStart Border

UrgoStart Border

Absorbent foam dressing containing a protease inhibitor (TLC-NOSF Healing Matrix), an absorbent polyurethane foam pad, a superabsorbent layer, and a silicone border with waterproof backing. The TLC-NOSF Healing Matrix inhibits excess matrix metalloproteinases and promotes angiogenesis. NICE 2019 medical technology guidance (MTG42) states that evidence supports the case for adopting UrgoStart dressings to treat diabetic foot ulcers and venous leg ulcers.

 

UrgoTul Absorb

UrgoTul Absorb

A soft-adherent foam featuring the TLC (technology lipido-colloid) healing matrix to provide a nurturing environment for healing and harm-free care.